# Maxwell’s Equations

The Maxwell’s equations define the divergence and curl of the electric and magnetic fields.

The Helmholtz theorem states that given appropriate boundary conditions a field is uniquely determined by its divergence and curl. (from Griffiths pp.52-53.) Therefore, the classical theory of electromagnetic fields is described by the Maxwell’s equations.

## Maxwell’s equations

From Balinis pp. 2-3, 6, 104; (In units: MKS, SI) and Feynman vol. II Table 18.1 “Classical Physics” Also, Taflove2005 pp.51-54 (emphasis on Maxwell’s equations for FDTD) and Griffiths pp. 175, 269, 326-327, 330; And see Griffiths page 330 for Maxwell’s equations for electromagnetic fields in matter

### Gauss’s Law (electric)

Flux of D through a closed surface equals the charge inside. Eqn:1.1

### Gauss’s Law (magnetic)

Flux of B through a closed surface equals zero. Eqn:1.2

Line integral of E around a loop plus the time rate of change of the flux of B through the loop equals zero. Eqn:1.3

### Ampere’s Law

Line integral of H around a loop minus the time rate of change of the flux of D through the loop equals the current through the loop Eqn:1.4

## Terms Defined electric flux density (coulombs / square meter) electric charge density (coulombs / cubic meter) magnetic flux density (webers / square meter) magnetic charge density (webers / cubic meter), (usually 0, no magnetic monopoles, Griffiths p.327) electric field intensity (volts / meter) impressed (source) magnetic current density (volts / square meter), (usually 0) magnetic field intensity (amperes / meter) electric current density (amperes / square meter) conduction electric current density (amperes / square meter) impressed (source) electric current density (amperes / square meter) electric permittivity (farads/meter) electric permittivity (free space) (farads/meter) magnetic permeability (Henrys/meter) magnetic permeability (free space) (Henrys/meter)

## Electromagnetic fields in matter (The Constitutive Relations)

The “Constitutive relations” are the equations that define the relationships between B, H, D, E. The Constitutive Parameters are: electricPermittivity, magneticPermeability and electricConductivity. (Balanis page 7)

### In free space Eqn:1.5 Eqn:1.6

### For linear materials

If Material is linear, isotropic, non-dispersive (i.e. materials having field-independent, direction-independent, and frequency-independent electric and magnetic properties).

From Griffiths pp.179-180, 274, 275, 330; Balinis p.8 (For non-linear dispersive materials see Griffiths page 401; Balanis pp. 76,77): Eqn:1.7 Eqn:1.8

### Constitutive relations in Dissipative Materials

From Taflove pp. 52-53, GriffithsED pp. 285,393, Balanis page 104.; Taflove2000 pp.68-70 If Material can dissipate electromagnetic fields (due to conversion to heat energy) JmResistive, H, JeConduction, E, are related by:

TBD